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|Collector Interceptor ''Ušće - Veliko Selo'' - Hydraulic Engineering Tunnel ''Višnjica'' in Belgrade|
Collector interceptor ''Ušće –Veliko Selo" is designed as a main collector of the city of Belgrade. It is anticipated that the collector collects wastewater and part of storm water of Belgrade's central sewer system and that they are rerouted to a location on the Danube River, downstream of the city, where there will be a treatment plant. Total length of collector should be 12,640 m and it should cover the area from the pumping station "Ušće" at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, to the treatment plant "Veliko Selo" on the banks of the Dunavac in Veliko Selo. Construction of the collector is done by sections, of which the tunnel "Višnjica" is the longest (6770 m), and stretches from the downstream end of the Veliko Selo collector, below the hill Višnjica, Slanački road, Mirijevski stream and Rospi Ćuprija to the middle of the street Visnjička at Karaburma settlement in Belgrade. The tunnel is mostly, located deep, up to 200 m, below the ground surface, and then from the Slanački road it is nearer to the ground surface. The tunnel has inner diameter of 4,10 m and is covered with a reinforced concrete segmental lining with thickness of 24 cm.
Construction of the tunnel began in 2007 with the formation of the plateau construction site on the banks of the Dunavac, area of approximately 3 ha. By the summer of 2008 all objects on the plateau were built and a tunnel machine from the German manufacturer "Wirth" was installed. Excavation began in the summer of 2009. Drilling around ten meters per day, with occasional interruptions for repairs of certain parts of the machine and with the achievement of good segments and incorporating injection between excavation and concrete lining, the tunnel was broken through at the end of November 2012. No significant deviation from the set route were evident, and subsidence of the ground surface was practically negligible, even in regions where the tunnel passed just a few meters below the foundations of existing structures. Also, reconstruction of the lining and cleaning of Mirijevski stream in the area Rospi Ćuprija, which passes underneath the tunnel, was carried out.
Investor is Belgrade Land Development Public Agency, the contractor company is '' Hydro - Hydropower'' in cooperation with "FERBILD", while the Institute "Jaroslav Černi" is the designer. The Entire collector will be used by Belgrade sewerage system.
The first field survey along the route of this section were carried out in 1978 ("Kosovoprojekt" and Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade), for purpose of the preliminary design, which was not further developed. In order to produce the updated project, in 2004 and 2005, new geological and geotechnical investigations ("Geozavod", Belgrade), which included 36 exploratory wells, with a total length of over 2900 m, as well as geophysical and laboratory measurements, were carried out. During the construction of the tunnel additional geological research ahead of machinery (Mining and Geology, Belgrade) were conducted, as well as technical surveillance (Institute "Jaroslav Černi").
''Jaroslav Černi'' Institute did the Preliminary and then Main design in 2005, and from 2007 we made the Construction Project. In the period of 2007-2012 The Institute has conducted supervision, and where necessary, provided consulting and other services, including monitoring and analysis of data recorded by the tunnel machine. Also, the Institute has prepared a risk and damage assessment of the tunnel machines, including a detailed calculation of the ground pressure on the machine shield and critical friction, which can stop the progress of the machine, given its technical limitations.